Immunohistochemical expression

Expressed by fetal liver and the endoderm of the yolk sac, this antigen is present in yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumours of testis and ovary and a high proportion of other germ cell tumours.  However, the staining in yolk sac tumours may be limited and sensitivity is low.

Diagnostic utility


Jacobsen GK, Jacobsen M,Clausen PP. Distribution of tumor-associated antigens in the various histologic components of germ cell tumors of the testis. Am J Surg Pathol 1981; 5:257-66

Peyrol S, Grimaud JA, Chayvialle JA, et al. Tissular immunoenzymatic detection of hepatic alphafetoprotein in human hepatomas. Digestion 1978; 18:351-70

Tsung SH. Localization of alpha-fetoprotein synthesis in malignancies other than hepatoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1977; 101:572-4

Goodman ZD, Ishak KG, Langloss JM, et al. Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma. A histologic and immunohistochemical study. Cancer 1985; 55:124-35

Roth LM,Panganiban WG. Gonadal and extragonadal yolk sac carcinomas: a clinicopathologic study of 14 cases. Cancer 1976; 37:812-20


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