CD15 (LeuM1)

Leu-M1 was first reported as reactive with the membrane-related trisaccharide fucosyl-N-acetyllactosamine on myelomonocytic cells, where the epitope was known as X-Hapten or Lewis-X. The gene is located on chromosome 11 in the region q12-qter45.

Antibodies are effective on paraffin-embedded tissue12.

Immunohistochemical expression

Diagnostic utility




Sheibani 19868



Sheibani 198614



Warnock 198815



Ordonez 198916



Wick 19909



Wick 199040



O'Hara 199017



Tickman 199018 (study done on cell blocks from serous effusions)



McCaughey 199119

not studied


Nance 199120 (study done on cell blocks from serous effusions)



Wirth 199121



Collins 199222



Gaffey 199223

not studied


Brown 199324



Moch 199325



Dejmek 199426



Maquire 199427 (study done on cell blocks from serous effusions)



Bailey 199628 (study done on cell blocks from serous effusions)



Doglioni 19961



Dejmek 19975



Bateman 199729



Delahaye 199730 (study done on cell blocks from serous effusions)




Riera 199731



Wilson 199732



Ordonez 199733



Leers 199810



Chenard-Neu 199834



Garcia-Prats 199835



Ordonez 199836



Brockstedt 20002



Dejmek 200037 (cytospins of serous fluids)



Gonzalez-Lois 200138



Roberts 20014



Comin 20017



Miettinen 2001

not studied


Abutaily 200213



Ordonez 200339





68% (1091/1606)

7% (120/1646)

A systematic review of twenty six studies (consisting of 1473 pulmonary adenocarcinomas and 1204 epithelioid mesotheliomas) reported sensitivities and specificities of CD15 for pulmonary adenocarcinoma of 72% and 93%41.


1 Doglioni, C., Tos, A. P., Laurino, L., Iuzzolino, P., Chiarelli, C., Celio, M. R., Viale, G. Calretinin: a novel immunocytochemical marker for mesothelioma. Am J Surg Pathol1996;20:1037-46.

2 Brockstedt U, Gulyas M, Dobra K. an optimized batter of eight antibodies that can distinguish most cases of epithelial mesothelioma form adenocarcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol 2000;114:203-9.

3 Gonzalez-Lois, C., Ballestin, C., Sotelo, M. T., Lopez-Rios, F., Garcia-Prats, M. D., Villena, V. Combined use of novel epithelial (MOC-31) and mesothelial (HBME-1) immunohistochemical markers for optimal first line diagnostic distinction between mesothelioma and metastatic carcinoma in pleura. Histopathology 2001;38:528-34.

4 Roberts, F., C. M. Harper, et al. (2001). "Immunohistochemical analysis still has a limited role in the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. A study of thirteen antibodies." Am J Clin Pathol 116(2): 253-62. First published in abstract, Harper CM. Evaluation of a commercially available immunohistochemical diagnostic panel for malignant mesothelioma. J Pathol 2001:193(suppl):39A.

5 Dejmek, A., Brockstedt, U., Hjerpe, A. Optimization of a battery using nine immunocytochemical variables for distinguishing between epithelial mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma. Apmis 1997;105:889-94.

6 Sosolik, R. C., McGaughy, V. R., De Young, B. R. Anti-MOC-31: a potential addition to the pulmonary adenocarcinoma versus mesothelioma immunohistochemistry panel. Mod Pathol 1997;10:716-9.

7 Comin, C. E., Novelli, L., Boddi, V., Paglierani, M., Dini, S. Calretinin, thrombomodulin, CEA, and CD15: a useful combination of immunohistochemical markers for differentiating pleural epithelial mesothelioma from peripheral pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Hum Pathol 2001;32:529-536.

8 Sheibani, K., Battifora, H., Burke, J. S.Sheibani. Antigenic phenotype of malignant mesotheliomas and pulmonary adenocarcinomas. An immunohistologic analysis demonstrating the value of Leu M1 antigen. Am J Pathol 1986;123:212-219

9 Wick, M. R., Loy, T., Mills, S. E., Legier, J. F., Manivel, J. C. Malignant epithelioid pleural mesothelioma versus peripheral pulmonary adenocarcinoma: a histochemical, ultrastructural, and immunohistologic study of 103 cases. Hum Pathol 1990;21:759-766.

10 Leers, M. P., Aarts, M. M., Theunissen, P. H. E-cadherin and calretinin: a useful combination of immunochemical markers for differentiation between mesothelioma and metastatic adenocarcinoma. Histopathology 1998;32:209-216.

11 Pileri, S. A., Ascani, S., Leoncini, L., Sabattini, E., Zinzani, P. L., Piccaluga, P. P., Pileri, A., Jr., Giunti, M., Falini, B., Bolis, G. B., Stein, H. Hodgkin's lymphoma: the pathologist's viewpoint. J Clin Pathol 2002;5:162-176.

12Leong A S-Y, Cooper K and Leong FJ W-M. Manual of diagnostic antibodies for immunohistology. 2nd edition, 2003

13 Abutaily, A.S., Addis, B.J. and Roche, W.R. Immunohistochemistry in the distinction between malignant mesothelioma and pulmonary adenocarcinoma: a critical evaluation of new antibodies. J Clin Pathol 2002;55:662-8.

14 Sheibani, K., H. Battifora, et al. (1986). "Leu-M1 antigen in human neoplasms. An immunohistologic study of 400 cases." Am J Surg Pathol 10(4): 227-36.

15 Warnock, M. L., A. Stoloff, et al. (1988). "Differentiation of adenocarcinoma of the lung from mesothelioma. Periodic acid-Schiff, monoclonal antibodies B72.3, and Leu M1." Am J Pathol 133(1): 30-8.

16 Ordonez, N. G. (1989). "The immunohistochemical diagnosis of mesothelioma. Differentiation of mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma." Am J Surg Pathol 13(4): 276-91.

17 O'Hara, C. J., J. M. Corson, et al. (1990). "ME1. A monoclonal antibody that distinguishes epithelial-type malignant mesothelioma from pulmonary adenocarcinoma and extrapulmonary malignancies." Am J Pathol 136(2): 421-8.

18 Tickman, R. J., C. Cohen, et al. (1990). "Distinction between carcinoma cells and mesothelial cells in serous effusions. Usefulness of immunohistochemistry." Acta Cytol 34(4): 491-6.

19 McCaughey, W. T., T. V. Colby, et al. (1991). "Diagnosis of diffuse malignant mesothelioma: experience of a US/Canadian Mesothelioma Panel." Mod Pathol 4(3): 342-53.

20 Nance, K. V. and J. F. Silverman (1991). "Immunocytochemical panel for the identification of malignant cells in serous effusions." Am J Clin Pathol 95(6): 867-74.

21 Wirth, P. R., J. Legier, et al. (1991). "Immunohistochemical evaluation of seven monoclonal antibodies for differentiation of pleural mesothelioma from lung adenocarcinoma." Cancer 67(3): 655-62.

22 Collins, C. L., N. G. Ordonez, et al. (1992). "Thrombomodulin expression in malignant pleural mesothelioma and pulmonary adenocarcinoma." Am J Pathol 141(4): 827-33.

23 Gaffey, M. J., S. E. Mills, et al. (1992). "Immunoreactivity for BER-EP4 in adenocarcinomas, adenomatoid tumors, and malignant mesotheliomas." Am J Surg Pathol 16(6): 593-9.

24 Brown, R. W., G. M. Clark, et al. (1993). "Multiple-marker immunohistochemical phenotypes distinguishing malignant pleural mesothelioma from pulmonary adenocarcinoma [see comments]." Hum Pathol 24(4): 347-54.

25 Moch, H., M. Oberholzer, et al. (1993). "Diagnostic tools for differentiating between pleural mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma in paraffin embedded tissue. Part I: Immunohistochemical findings." Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol 423(1): 19-27.

26 Dejmek, A. and A. Hjerpe (1994). "Immunohistochemical reactivity in mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma: a stepwise logistic regression analysis." Apmis 102(4): 255-64.

27 Maguire, B., D. Whitaker, et al. (1994). "Monoclonal antibody Ber-EP4: its use in the differential diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma and carcinoma in cell blocks of malignant effusions and FNA specimens." Diagn Cytopathol 10(2): 130-4.

28 Bailey, M. E., R. W. Brown, et al. (1996). "Ber-EP4 for differentiating adenocarcinoma from reactive and neoplastic mesothelial cells in serous effusions. Comparison with carcinoembryonic antigen, B72.3 and Leu-M1." Acta Cytol 40(6): 1212-6.

29 Bateman, A. C., R. K. al-Talib, et al. (1997). "Immunohistochemical phenotype of malignant mesothelioma: predictive value of CA125 and HBME-1 expression." Histopathology 30(1): 49-56.

30 Delahaye, M., F. van der Ham, et al. (1997). "Complementary value of five carcinoma markers for the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma, adenocarcinoma metastasis, and reactive mesothelium in serous effusions." Diagn Cytopathol 17(2): 115-20.

31 Riera, J. R., C. Astengo-Osuna, et al. (1997). "The immunohistochemical diagnostic panel for epithelial mesothelioma: a reevaluation after heat-induced epitope retrieval [see comments]." Am J Surg Pathol 21(12): 1409-19.

32 Wilson JD, Merino MJ, Harris C et al. Mesothelioma vs adenocarcinoma: does immunohistochemistry help? Lab Invest 1997;76:174A.

33 Ordonez, N. G. (1997). "The value of antibodies 44-3A6, SM3, HBME-1, and thrombomodulin in differentiating epithelial pleural mesothelioma from lung adenocarcinoma: a comparative study with other commonly used antibodies [see comments]." Am J Surg Pathol 21(12): 1399-408.

34 Chenard-Neu, M. P., A. Kabou, et al. (1998). "[Immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma. Evaluation of 5 new antibodies and 6 traditional antibodies]." Ann Pathol 18(6): 460-5.

35 Garcia-Prats, M. D., C. Ballestin, et al. (1998). "A comparative evaluation of immunohistochemical markers for the differential diagnosis of malignant pleural tumours." Histopathology 32(5): 462-72.

36 Ordonez, N. G. (1998). "Role of immunohistochemistry in distinguishing epithelial peritoneal mesotheliomas from peritoneal and ovarian serous carcinomas." Am J Surg Pathol 22(10): 1203-14.

37 Dejmek, A. and A. Hjerpe (2000). "Reactivity of six antibodies in effusions of mesothelioma, adenocarcinoma and mesotheliosis: stepwise logistic regression analysis." Cytopathology 11(1): 8-17.

38 Gonzalez-Lois, C., C. Ballestin, et al. (2001). "Combined use of novel epithelial (MOC-31) and mesothelial (HBME-1) immunohistochemical markers for optimal first line diagnostic distinction between mesothelioma and metastatic carcinoma in pleura." Histopathology 38(6): 528-34.

39 Ordonez, N. G. (2003). "The immunohistochemical diagnosis of mesothelioma: a comparative study of epithelioid mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma." Am J Surg Pathol 27(8): 1031-51.

40 Wick MR, Mills SE,Swanson PE Expression of "myelomonocytic" antigens in mesotheliomas and adenocarcinomas involving the serosal surfaces. Am J Clin Pathol 1990; 94:18-26

41 King JE, Thatcher N, Pickering CA, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of immunohistochemical markers used in the diagnosis of epithelioid mesothelioma: a detailed systematic analysis using published data. Histopathology 2006; 48:223-32

42 Kamel OW, Weiss LM, van de Rijn M, et al. Hodgkin's disease and lymphoproliferations resembling Hodgkin's disease in patients receiving long-term low-dose methotrexate therapy. Am J Surg Pathol 1996; 20:1279-87

43 Barry TS, Jaffe ES, Sorbara L, et al. Peripheral T-cell lymphomas expressing CD30 and CD15. Am J Surg Pathol 2003; 27:1513-22

44 Gorczyca W, Tsang P, Liu Z, et al. CD30-positive T-cell lymphomas co-expressing CD15: an immunohistochemical analysis. Int J Oncol 2003; 22:319-24

45 Pui CH, Frankel LS, Carroll AJ, et al. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia with the t(4;11)(q21;q23): a collaborative study of 40 cases. Blood 1991; 77:440-7 FULL TEXT

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